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The forms of confusion between Trade Marks are as follows:

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Confusion as to sponsorship:

Even where consumers are unlikely t0 be confused as to source, they may be confused as to sponsorship. Team logo merchandise is a common example; consumers may expect that they are supporting the New York Yankees by purchasing a Yankees cap.

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Initial interest confusion:

Sometimes, famous marks are used to lure consumers to different businesses. “Cyber squatting” by registering a well-known trademark as a domain name is one well-known example

Another is the use of Meta tags to fool search engines: a little-known adult Web site may attempt to attract visitors by showing up in web searches for more well-known adult entertainment franchises.

Both activities can be considered trademark infringement by confusion Post-sale confusion. Post- sale confusion is often used to find infringement in counterfeit goods, such as fake watches and handbags.

While the purchaser is likely to understand that they are buying a counterfeit product, the aim is to confuse others into thinking the product comes from a different source.

Reverse confusion:

Although confusion cases generally involve a little-known business using a well-known mark, confusion can also be found when a well-known business uses a little-known mark.

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